High-Throughput Sequencing of Gastric Cancer Patients: Unravelling Genetic Predispositions Towards an Early-Onset Subtype
Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death. Currently, it is broadly accepted that the molecular complexity and heterogeneity of gastric cancer, both inter- and intra-tumor, display important barriers for finding specific biomarkers for the early detection and diagnosis of this malignancy. Early-onset gastric cancer is not as prevalent as conventional gastric carcinoma, but it is a preferable model for studying the genetic background, as young patients are less
... ents are less exposed to environmental factors, which influence cancer development. Aim: The main objective of this study was to reveal age-dependent genotypic characteristics of gastric cancer subtypes, as well as conduct mutation profiling for the most frequent alterations in gastric cancer development, using targeted next-generation sequencing technology. Patients and methods: The study group included 53 patients, consisting of 18 patients with conventional gastric cancer and 35 with an early-onset subtype. The DNA of all index cases was used for next-generation sequencing, employing a panel of 94 genes and 284 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (TruSight Cancer Panel, Illumina), which is characteristic for common and rare types of cancer. Results: From among the 53 samples processed for sequencing, we were able to identify seven candidate genes (STK11, RET, FANCM, SLX4, WRN, MEN1, and KIT) and nine variants among them: one splice_acceptor, four synonymous, and four missense variants. These were selected for the age-dependent differentiation of gastric cancer subtypes. We found four variants with C-Score ≥ 10, as 10% of the most deleterious substitutions: rs1800862 (RET), rs10138997 (FANCM), rs2230009 (WRN), and rs2959656 (MEN1). We identified 36 different variants, among 24 different genes, which were the most frequent genetic alterations among study subjects. We found 16 different variants among the genes that were present in 100% of the total cohort: SDHB (rs2746462), ALK (rs1670283), XPC (rs2958057), RECQL4 (rs4925828; rs11342077, rs398010167; rs2721190), DDB2 (rs326212), MEN1 (rs540012), AIP (rs4930199), ATM (rs659243), HNF1A (rs1169305), BRCA2 (rs206075; rs169547), ERCC5 (rs9514066; rs9514067), and FANCI (rs7183618). Conclusions: The technology of next-generation sequencing is a useful tool for studying the development and progression of gastric carcinoma in a high-throughput way. Our study revealed that early-onset gastric cancer has a different mutation frequency profile in certain genes compared to conventional subtype.