Application of Upgraded Drop-In Fuel Obtained from Biomass Pyrolysis in a Spark Ignition Engine
This paper reports the performance of a spark ignition engine using gasoline blended with an upgraded bio-oil rich in aromatics and ethanol. This upgraded bio-oil was obtained using a two-step catalytic process. The first step comprised an in-situ catalytic pyrolysis process with CaO in order to obtain a more stable deoxygenated organic fraction, while the second consisted of a catalytic cracking of the vapours released using ZSM-5 zeolites to obtain an aromatics-rich fraction. To facilitate
... n. To facilitate the mixture between bio-oil and gasoline, ethanol was added. The behaviour of a stationary spark ignition engine G12TFH (9600 W) was described in terms of fuel consumption and electrical efficiency. In addition, gaseous emissions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were determined. Trial tests suggested that it is possible to work with a blend of gasoline, ethanol and bio-oil (90/8/2 vol%, herein named G90E8B2) showing similar fuel consumption than pure gasoline (G100) at the same load. Moreover, combustion could be considered more efficient when small quantities of ethanol and organic bio-oil are simultaneously added. A reduction, not only in the PAH concentrations but also in the carcinogenic equivalent concentrations, was also obtained, decreasing the environmental impact of the exhaust gases. Thus, results show that it is technically feasible to use low blends of aroma-rich bio-oil, ethanol and gasoline in conventional spark ignition engines.