Designing A Model of Vocational Training Programs for Disables through ODL
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education
This study was conducted to designing a model of vocational training programs for disables. For this purpose desk review was carried out and the vocational training models/programs of Israel, U.K., Vietnam, Japan and Thailand were analyzed to form a conceptual frame work of the model. Keeping in view the local conditions/requirements a model of vocational training program was proposed. The proposed model involved the vocational training plan for the job of cashier for mild group, receptionist
... oup, receptionist for moderate and computer operator for severe group. It specified the type of disability as well involved in the training plan. The model recommended the vocational training of three levels of disability; mild, moderate and severe irrespective to the type. The model consisted of details of structure, objectives, professional support involved, vocational training plan and syllabus/activities, evaluation and on job training etc. International practices regarding VT mixed with the national existing situations were critically analyzed during desk review and finally a plan of VT for disables was proposed. A survey was conducted via a questionnaire to get opinion of the heads and senior vocational instructors of Federal Government vocational training and rehabilitation centers for PWDs. The collected data was statistically analyzed to quantify the suggestions on proposed model. The major findings included that all stakeholders considered VT helpful in rehabilitation of PWDs. All heads and vocational instructors are willing to adopt this model, minimum or no extra funds are needed in its implementation, the vocational teacher employed in the centers can easily manage to adopt this model at their centers because no extra training is required for the staff and they all endorse the VT plan proposed in this model. 213 A vocational training model is required to reduce socio-economic gap and to set professional standards by developing human resources trained in trades. The syllabus, activities and methodology proposed for the vocational training of the students at special education centers for the disables was agreed upon by the experts. It was recommended that vocational training model on various jobs for specific disabilities may be developed. Vocational training model for after school youth may also be developed on similar pattern. It was recommended that vocational training must be implemented through ODL for the training of PWDs in acquiring vocational skills if there is no vocational skill training teacher or resources available at the centers. In this way a large number of individuals who are taking education at special education centers and institutions can take benefits from VET programs at a time with minimal cost provided at their door steps or at institutions. Due to lack of availability of vocational and technical network in Pakistan, a need exists to establish vocational training through ODL. LITERATURE REVIEW The vocational training is a movement towards reducing the gap between the normal and the handicapped. It is an essential tool for integrating the special people in society and making them productive member of community. According to ILO, Disabled Persons Convention No.155, Recommendation No.168, (1993), Vocational training is one means of helping a disabled person to become settled in employment. Methods of achieving this are similar to those used in planning for the able persons, (Sajjad, 2004). There is probably not a single country in the world over where all young people' without exception, can learn the trade they would most like. Sharma (2006, p.63) was of the view that "Government needs to give high priority to vocational and skill-oriented education to the children with special needs". Government of Pakistan (2006, p.74) also identified in National plan of Action 23 actions to be taken for rehabilitation of persons with disability. PWD's can take up training to become skilled or semi-skilled workers in keeping with their capabilities and intellectual performance. Good pupils are free to acquire university entrance standards and enroll at college or university. Vocational Training and Open and Distance Learning Open and distance learning provides an alternate which can be used vigorously in VET training. Numerous countries of the pacific island are imparting VET through distance learning (common wealth of learning, 2002). The face-to-face VET delivery system could not fulfill the requirements of all communities in any country. Similarly the national governments cannot provide facilities of courses and professional support regarding this training in each and every corner of the country. Since the VET involves material and facility, delivery mechanism and professional support, its provision at different institutions is costly and sometimes provision is not possible to all sectors. The requirements of skilled workers at different times in the communities also make it cost effective. The cost of providing a range of skilled workers in the areas of building, energy generation, food production, health services and automobile maintenance, is very large when the traditional face to face delivery system is used. Therefore the distance learning have been suggested by the researchers the best solution to this problem. The distance education train people without incurring the costs of travel, accommodation, etc. According to Bartam, Lene, & Williams (2004) "the only alternative at present is to invest heavily in sending students off shore to study. The cost is enormous because it includes the cost of living and transport as well the cost of tuition, but this mode of learning is supported by island government for high end training such as medicine and law, where students might be sent to the universities of the South Pacific. However it is not supported by the Island government for high need training areas such as basic trade skills in building, electrical and mechanical trades where larger number of skilled people are Numerical Ability Ability to solve numerical problems using the four fundamental rules of arithmetic: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.