Effects of vacuum-assisted closure and Drotrecogin alpha on inflammatory markers in severe acute pancreatitis
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology
In severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) inflammatory processes foster necrosis, cellular lysis and liberation of vasoactive substances associated with multiple organ failure. The effects of vacuum-assisted closure and Drotrecogin alpha on inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in SAP patients with infected necrosis. Methods: Forty-six patients were included in three groups: Group 1, necrosectomy and abdominal cavity washing; Group 2, necrosectomy plus vacuum-assisted closure (VAC), and Group 3,
... and Group 3, necrossectomy plus VAC plus Drotrecogin alpha. Immunoreactive IL-32, TNF-α, IL-6, TGF-β and IL-2 cytokines were quantified with ELISA method. Results: IL-32 was significantly increased in all patients, predominantly the non-survivor of Group 3 (p < 0.0001). Group 2 maintained increased IL-32 levels throughout. Peak TNF-α was observed in non-survivors of Groups 1 and 2, with a frank tendency to decrease in Group 3. The IL-6 was increased, sustained throughout the study, peaking at the onset in non-survivors. At the end IL-6 tended to diminish, predominantly in survivors. TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly increased on hospitalization, with a maximum peak in non-survivors of all groups. Initial values of TGF-β were significantly increased in survivors of the three groups, and were significantly diminished in non-survivors; affecting pancreas regeneration and favoring sys-temic inflammation, with possible multiple-organ repercussions. IL-2 levels were elevated, predominantly in non-survivors of Group 1. There was positive correlation between the increase IL-32 and TNF-α, and negative correlation between the increase in TNF-α and decrease in TGF-β; and, a tendency for negative correlation between the IL-2 increased and TGF-β levels. Conclusion: We found a generalized, sustained inflammatory state that fosters a torpid outcome in SAP patients.