Hybrid Maps Enhanced Localization System for Mobile Manipulator in Harsh Manufacturing Workshop
With excellent mobility and flexibility, mobile manipulators have great potential for loading and unloading tasks of numerical control machine tools (CNC) in manufacturing workshops. However, because of the rough and oily ground, dynamic obstacles and the convex plate of a CNC, harsh manufacturing workshop poses a huge challenge to the localization system of an autonomous mobile manipulator. To address the above problem, this paper presents a hybrid maps enhanced localization system which
... system which mainly consists of a global localization method and a pose tracking method. Hybrid maps including hybrid grid map, multiresolution likelihood fields (MLFs) and hybrid point map are constructed to efficaciously model the harsh environment and to improve localization performance. Our global localization method employs the convex hull sampling to spares dense Lidar data and the MLFs based branch and bound (BnB) search to speed up global search. To achieve real-time localization reliably and accurately, our pose tracking method seamlessly combines the BnB search and the adaptive Monte Carlo localization, and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) based scan matching using the hybrid point map is adopted for higher accuracy. In addition, a distance filter improved by unscented transform is integrated into the pose tracking process to mitigate the influence of dynamic obstacles. The developed localization system is evaluated through different experiments including two weeks of loading and unloading tasks in a real manufacturing scenario, resulting in superior localization performance. INDEX TERMS Mobile manipulator, localization system, hybrid maps, global localization, pose tracking, manufacturing workshop.