On the Derivatives of Propane

C. Schorlemmer
1869 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London  
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more » ... out Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate--jstor/individuals/early-journal--content. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not--for--profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. 1869.] Mr. C. Schorlemmer on the Derivatives of Propane. 1869.] Mr. C. Schorlemmer on the Derivatives of Propane. found in petroleum. It gives, by the proper reactions, a considerable quantity of a primary alcohol, and a smaller quantity of a secondary one; the latter is not identical with methyl-hexyl carbinol, but consists most probably of ethyl-amyl carbinol, C2 ij CH OH, as, on oxidation, it yields valerianic and propionic acids. The primary alcohol appears to differ from the primary octyl alcohol, which has been found lately by Zincke in the seeds of Heracleum slpondylium*. The essential oil of these seeds consists chiefly of an octyl acetate, boiling at 2060-208?, and possessing an orange-like smell, whilst that which I obtained smells strongly of pears, and boils at 198?-202?. By oxydising his alcohol, Zincke obtained a caprylic acid, which solidified at 12?, whilst the acid which I got remained liquid at 0?. Zincke's alcohol is most likely the normal alcohol, and that which I obtained an alcohol containing the group isopropylt. (3) On acting upon the hydrocarbons of the series CnE2s+2 with chlorine, a mixture of primary and secondary chlorides is formed. This is proved by the fact that the alcohols derived from these chlorides yield, on oxidation, besides an acid containing the same number of atoms of carbon as the alcohol, also acetones, or the characteristic oxidation products of secondary alcohols. Not only the above researches show this, but also my former experiments on the oxidation of amyl-alcohol prepared from the hydride, which gave, besides valerianic acid, also acetic acid and the acetone, C, Hilo 0$. Dr. W. Thomson on Holtenia. Dr. W. Thomson on Holtenia. are replaceable by chlorine. Pelouze and Cahours* state that the last substitution-product of this hydrocarbon is the compound C6 H8 C1. I repeated this experiment, and passed chlorine into pure sextane, first in the diffused and afterwards in the direct sunlight, as long as any action could be observed. Thus I obtained a heavy colourless liquid, which did not distil without decomposition, the analysis of which showed that it had the above composition. 0*1612 gave 0'4654 silver chloride and 0'0076 silver. Calculated for C6 H8 C1l. Found. 72'7 per cent. Cl. 72'8 per cent. XVII. " On Holtenia, a Genus of Vitreous Sponges." By WYVILLE THOMSON, LL.D., F.R.S., Professor of Natural Science in Queen's College, Belfast. (Abstract.) During the deep-sea dredging cruise of H.M.S. 'Lightning' in the autumn of the year 1868, the dredge brought up, on the 6th of September, froio a depth of 530 fathoms, in lat. 59? 36' N., and long. 7? 20' W., about 20 miles beyond the 100-fathom line of the Coast Survey of Scotland, fine, grey, oozy mud, with forty or fifty entire examples of several species of siliceous sponges. The minimum temperature indicated by several registering thermometers was 47?'3 F., the surface temperature for the several localities being 52?'5 F. The mud brought up consisted chiefly of minute amorphous particles of carbonate of lime, with a considerable proportion of living Globigerinca and other Foraminifera, and of the "coccoliths" and " coccospheres," so characteristic of the chalk-mud of the warmer area of the Atlantic. The sponges belonged to four genera; one of these was the genus Hyalonema, previously represented by the singular glass-rope sponges of Japan and the coast of Portugal, and the other three genera were new to science. One of these latter was the subject of the paper. Associated with the sponges were representatives, usually of a small size, of the Mollusca, the Crustacea and Annelides, the Echinodermata, and the Ccelenterata, with numerous large and remarkable rhizopods. Many of the higher invertebrates were brightly coloured and had eyes. Four nearly perfect specimens of the sponge described in the memoir were procured. IIOLTENIA, 1. g.t :H. CARPIENTERI, n. sp.