COVID-19-associated meningoencephalitis treated with intravenous immunoglobulin

Rayan S El-Zein, Serge Cardinali, Christie Murphy, Thomas Keeling
2020 BMJ Case Reports  
A 40-year-old man presented with altered mental status after a recenthospitalisation for COVID-19 pneumonia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed lymphocytosis concerning for viral infection. The CSF PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was negative, yet this could not exclude COVID-19 meningoencephalitis. During hospitalisation, the patient's mentation deteriorated further requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Brain imaging and electroencephalogram (EEG) were unremarkable. He was, thus,
more » ... . He was, thus, treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) for 5 days with clinical improvement back to baseline. This case illustrates the importance of considering COVID-19's impact on the central nervous system (CNS). Haematogenous, retrograde axonal transport, and the effects of cytokine storm are the main implicated mechanisms of CNS entry of SARS-CoV-2. While guidelines remain unclear, IVIg may be of potential benefit in the treatment of COVID-19-associated meningoencephalitis.
doi:10.1136/bcr-2020-237364 pmid:32895254 fatcat:w5dbofwuonhtpbnu26vsztsguy