GPNMB expression impacts prognosis and immune infiltration in cancers
Background Glycoprotein non-metastatic gene B (GPNMB) can regulate tumor progression by interacting with T cell function. However, the association between GPNMB and tumor-infiltrating immune cells and prognosis of various cancers is poorly understood. Methods We use the Oncomine and TIMER database to investigate GPNMB expression in multiple tumors. The PrognoScan database, Kaplan-Meier plotter are used to analyze tumor prognosis of GPNMB. R packages are used to performed multivariable cox
... ivariable cox regression analysis. We use TIMER and GEPIA database to explore the association between GPNMB expression and tumor immune infiltration levels, and immune cell markers. GPNMB related transcription factors and transcription-target networks are investigated via TTRUST database and GeneMANIA . Results A high level of GPNMB expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD). While, a high level of GPNMB expression was significantly associated with favorable prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Besides, GPNMB expression levels can impact the prognosis in STAD and LUAD patients with lymph node metastasis. Moreover, GPNMB expression level has significant relationships with B cells, CD8 + T cells, CD4 + T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and DCs infiltrating levels in STAD and LUAD. Besides, various immune gene markers of STAD and LUAD are significantly related to GPNMB expression. In addition, the GPNMB related transcription factors are MITF and TP53. The transcript-target networks are mainly responsible for signal transduction in response to DNA damage, DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator, mitotic G1 DNA damage checkpoint, G1 DNA damage checkpoint. Conclusions These results indicate that GPNMB is significantly associated with prognosis and immune infiltrating levels in various cancers patients, especially in STAD, LUAD patients. Multiple immune gene markers of STAD and LUAD are significantly related to GPNMB expression, especially monocyte, macrophage polarization, and functional T cells gene markers. Our study signifies that GPNMB plays an essential role in prognosis prediction and immune infiltration of STAD and LUAD.