Hydraulic Flow Reviewed. A Book of Reference of Standard Experiments on Pipes, Channels, Notches, Weirs, and Circular Orifices, Together with New Formulae Relating Thereto

A. A. Barnes
1917 Mathematical Gazette  
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more » ... University Press Catalogue. Issued November, 1916, by Humphrey Milford, Publisher to the University of Oxford. Pp. viii + 566. The first 480 pages of this book consist of a Subject Catalogue, and the rest of an Alphabetical List, with prices and references to the preceding pages. Supplements are to be issued containing similar information as to all books published after November, 1916. These will be sent to regular customers or supplied on application. Section V., headed " Natural Science and Medicine," consists of thirty-two pages, of which four contain all the mathematical works published by this Press. Taken as a whole, and quite apart from its ostensible object, the book lends itself to occasional browsing, and is rendered attractive by the inclusion of many typical illustrations from works in the lists. Hydraulic Flow Reviewed. A Book of Reference of Standard Experi ments on Pipes, Channels, Notches, Weirs, and Circular Orifices, together with New Formulae relating thereto. By A. A. BARNES. Pp. viii+158. 12s. 6d. net. 1916. (Messrs. Spon.) This valuable contribution to the literature of practical hydraulics lies somewhat outside the scope of the Gazette. It brings out clearly the wide divergence between theoretical results and the records of experiment. This is due to "the various unknown influences at work, and the best we can do is to make accurate experiments which shall, when a sufficient number has been accumulated, be allowed to supersede in practice all theoretical assumptions." The complexity of the subject is such that laboratory results are too often misleading, and no results are really trustworthy which are not derived from the comparison of the results obtained in real life and on a very large scale, and in sufficient number. Compendio de Algebra de Abenb6der. Texto arabe, traduccion y estadia por J. A. S. PEREZ. Pp. xlviii+-117-the Arabictext. 6 ptas. 1916. (Junta Para Amplicacion de Estudios, Moreto, 1, Madrid.) The influence of the young and growing body of mathematical thought in Spain is making itself felt, and the publication of a translation of an Arabic Algebra from the MSS. preserved in the Library of the Escurial, is sufficient evidence of the vigour of the new school, and of the enterprise of a body of historians who take the history of science as part of their province. The library description of this interesting relic of the past is as follows: CMXXXI. Codex literis cuphicis exaratus, quo continentur. i. Tractatus tripartitus, exaratus die 11 Schevali, anno Egirae 744 Christi 1343 ubi de Logistica, Apologistica & Analogistica disseritur, hac inscriptione: Algebrae et Comparationum Epitome: Hujus auctor Abi Abdalla Mohamad ben Omar, vulgo Ben Badr Hispalensis, egregius quidem, sed incertae aetatis scriptor ...." The first part is devoted to theory, and is divided into seventeen sections: I.-VI., equations of the first and second degree; VII.-XII., operations with roots of numbers; XIII. and XIII. bis, XIV. and XIV. bis, multiplication of signs, with problems thereupon; XV., division; XVI. continues the second part of XIII.; XVII. is untranslatable: Cheber y almocabala. As the word algebra is derived from alcheber, the Arabic books on the subject had as title: Libro de cheber y almocabala, these being Arabic words signifying the operations necessary for the solution of equations. Cheber is the series of operations necessary to bring all the unknowns on to one side of the equations and to simplify them; while almocbbalais the name for the operations necessary from that stage to find the value of the unknowns. So that to apply el cheber y el almocdbala is to solve an equation. There is nothing in the treatise about the properties of progressions, although the examples which constitute the second and: practical part do imply a knowledge of the relations between the first and last terms, the sum, the common difference, and the number of terms of an arithmetical progression. We are not competent to speak of the accuracy of the translation from the Arabic, and any reader of the Gazette is welcome to test it at his leisure if he will apply to the Editor for a copy of the book. But we have noticed nothing in the Spanish that is not quite intelligible, so that with this reservation we may compliment Signor P6rez on having done a valuable piece of work.
doi:10.2307/3603511 fatcat:swbo7ohej5hwbatcnnwfd6nsnq