Metode Ketenangan Jiwa: Suatu Perbandingan antara al-Ghazâlî dan Sigmund Freud
Islamica: Jurnal Studi Keislaman
<p>Al-Ghazâlî and Freud are both concerned with the idea soul –and within itthe</p><p>notion of spiritual tranquility. They both argue that soul has qualities such as health,</p><p>sickness, tranquility, worriness, and so on, which need to be managed and organized.</p><p>However, the paradigm within which they speak of this notion is sharply different. For al-Ghazâlî, the nature of soul is purity. Hence it tends to resort to virtue and avoid vice. Al-Ghazâlî reckons that they are degrees of
... are degrees of soul. But that which is tranquil is the highest</p><p>degree of soul. This soul is what he –borrowing the Qur'an- calls al-Nafs al-Mutma'innah</p><p>(the tranquil soul). For Freud on the other hand, soul is an abstraction of man's</p><p>psychological and physical system. It is impulsive, and tends to seek material and physical</p><p>satisfaction through sexual pleasure among others. Man in his view is a sexual being. He</p><p>speaks of the structure of soul as having three categories, namely Id, Ego and Super-ego.</p><p>It is Id -meaning lust- that dominates one's soul. Man will acquire tranquility once he –by</p><p>means of his Ego and Super-ego- satisfied his Id. Conversely, a failure to satisfy Id will</p><p>result in a psychological disorder. Hence the sharp contrast between al-Ghazâlî and</p>Freud. And it is about this contrast that this paper is concerned.