Higgs-Like Mechanism by Confinement of Quarks in a Chemical Non-Equilibrium Model

Leif Matsson
2016 World Journal of Mechanics  
A chemical non-equilibrium equation for binding of massless quarks to antiquarks, combined with the spatial correlations occurring in the condensation process, yields a density dependent form of the double-well potential in the electroweak theory. The Higgs boson acquires mass, valence quarks emerge and antiparticles become suppressed when the system relaxes and symmetry breaks down. The hitherto unknown dimensionless coupling parameter to the superconductor-like potential becomes a regulator
more » ... comes a regulator of the quark-antiquark asymmetry. Only a small amount of quarks become "visible"-the valence quarks, which are 13% of the total sum of all quarks and antiquarks-suggesting that the quarks-antiquark pair components of the becoming quarkantiquark sea play the role of dark matter. When quark-masses are in-weighted, this number approaches the observed ratio between ordinary matter and the sum of ordinary and dark matter. The model also provides a chemical non-equilibrium explanation for the information loss in black holes, such as of baryon number. Open Access comes a regulator of the quark-antiquark asymmetry. Only a fraction of the quarks, 13% of the total sum of all once free quarks and antiquarks, become "visible" as valence quarks, suggesting that excited pairs of the "invisible" non-valence quarks and the "invisible" antiquarks could play the role of dark matter in a remote quasi-free state. The model also provides an explanation as to how valence quarks emerge by suppression of antiquarks. The Sakharov constraints [2]-violation of C and CP symmetry and baryon number conservation, in a thermodynamic non-equilibrium Universe which still expands from a super-dense state-are partly relevant also for these studies. However, to create a proton or neutron, with massive valence quarks and a spatially correlated quark-antiquark sea from a gas-like state of equal densities of free massless quarks (q) and antiquarks ( ) q , the gas must also condense and the number (density) of quarks must increase relative to the number (density) of antiquarks. This implies that the binding of quarks to antiquarks takes place at chemical non-equilibrium conditions. In combination with strong spatial correlations that emerge in the condensation process, such conditionsan increasing density of quark-antiquark ( ) qq -pairs (ψ) and a density of quarks (becoming valence quarks) that increases relative to that of antiquarks-are very unfortunate, because the grand canonical ensemble then admits only fluctuations (fugacity) about a constant number of particles [3]. The problem therefore also goes beyond lattice QCD, which relies on the grand canonical ensemble and more "thermotropic" type conditions [4]. Quark-gluon interaction is strong at distances of about a nucleon diameter (10 −15 m), but weakens at high energies (temperatures) where quarks interact at shorter distances. Already at about 150 MeV (~2 × 10 12 degrees K), nuclear matter boils down to a quarkgluon plasma (QGP) [4], which behaves like a fluid with small shear viscosity (short mean free path) and a very high opaqueness towards color, not unlike electromagnetic Debye screening in a usual plasma. At infinite energy, quarks become asymptotically free [5] [6] and attain the same density as antiquarks. Conversely, when nuclear matter cools down and condenses, the couplings and spatial correlations between quarks and antiquarks become strong and a surplus of valence quarks emerge. Neither transport theory can solve this chemical non-equilibrium problem [4]. Apart from that, QCD also has a complicated singular infrared behavior [7] [8] that flaws calculations of bound states. This paper identifies and suggests solutions to some of these problems that underlie the standard model. Section 2 describes the chemical non-equilibrium equation for binding of quarks (fermions) to antiquarks (antifermions). The binding equation, combined with a coherent (local) formulation of the strong spatial (non-local) correlations between the condensing particles, as shown in Section 3, yields the Ginsburg-Landau (GL) like potential used in EW theory, however, with a density-dependent order parameter. Section 4 provides an explanation as to how mass, dark matter, and valence quarks emerge by suppression of antiquarks. It is shown that the coupling to the GLlike potential becomes a regulator of the qq -asymmetry, leaving only valence quarks, L. Matsson
doi:10.4236/wjm.2016.611031 fatcat:g754wco5bjcfjl32t7ucq3timq