Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2: Hypotheses of Impact on the Circulatory System, Prospects for the Use of Perfluorocarbon Emulsion, and Feasibility of Biophysical Research Methods
This paper highlights published hypotheses on the possibility of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 entry into the bloodstream, its interaction with vascular endothelium, red blood cells, hemoglobin and its fragments. As a result of such interaction, iron ions may be released into the bloodstream and, subsequently, a cytokine storm may occur. In this context, it is important to find a cytoprotective agent capable of blocking such processes. The perfluorocarbon emulsion could be a candidate for this
... te for this role.The aim of the paper is to show the feasibility of biophysical methods to study the molecular mechanisms of action of SARS-CoV-2 on human red blood cells and hemoglobin as well as the restorative and cytoprotective effect of the perfluorocarbon emulsion during Fe2+ oxidation in heme.Materials and methods. High resolution spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, atomic force spectroscopy, electroporation were used. Blood was exposed to oxidizing agents of different nature. Perfluorocarbon emulsion was added in various concentrations and its effect at various incubation times was studied. Concentration of hemoglobin derivatives was calculated considering multicollinearity, and statistical analysis of the results was performed.Results. The perfluorocarbon emulsion was shown to have an effective restorative and cytoprotective action in iron ion oxidation in the heme: Fe3+ was restored to Fe2+. The degree of MetHb reduction to HbO2 and Hb depended on the concentration of the oxidizing agent and incubation time. We observed a change in MetHb content from 80-90% to 5-12%. The perfluorocarbon emulsion in clinical concentrations helped eliminate local membrane defects and restored normal erythrocyte morphology.Conclusion. In the light of the studied hypotheses, the use of perfluorocarbon emulsion can become an effective method for blocking the consequences of coronavirus effect on the blood cells and restoring a normal gas exchange.