Orthogonal Reference Surrogate Fuels for Operability Testing

Zhibin Yang, Robert Stachler, Joshua S. Heyne
2020 Energies  
The approval and evaluation process for sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) via ASTM D4054 is both cost- and volume-intensive, namely due to engine operability testing under severe conditions. Engine operability tests of combustor under figures of merit (FOM) limit phenomena are the fuel effects on lean blowout, high-altitude relight, and cold-start ignition. One method to increase confidence and reduce volume in tiered testing is to use surrogate fuels for manipulation of properties. Key fuel
more » ... rties. Key fuel performance properties (surface tension, viscosity, density) for cold-start ignition was determined prior to this study. Prior work regarding this FOM has not considered the combination of these properties. A surface tension blending rule was validated and incorporated into the jet fuel blend optimizer (JudO). A generalized surrogate calculator for N-dimensional surrogate components and features was developed. Jet fuel surrogates developed in this study were a mixture of conventional and sustainable aviation fuels instead of pure components. These surrogates suggested to be tested in this study could illuminate near worst-case effects for sustainable aviation fuel in a given configuration/rig. With those scenarios tested, we can further understand the influence on the key properties relative to cold-start ignition. This work and supporting experimental evidence could potentially lower the barrier for SAF approval processes.
doi:10.3390/en13081948 fatcat:b32wgkw7g5hifk7ttdiysvsydi