Sources of organic carbon in PM1 in Helsinki urban air
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions
A major fraction of fine particle matter consists of organic carbon (OC) but its origin is still inadequately known. In this study the sources of OC were investigated in the northern European urban environment in Helsinki, Finland. Measurements were carried out over one year and they included both filter (PM 1 ) and online methods. From 5 the filter samples OC, elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble OC (WSOC), levoglucosan and major ions were analyzed. Filter data together with the concentrations
... the concentrations of inorganic gases were analyzed by Positive matrix factorization (PMF) method in order to find the sources of OC (and WSOC) on an annual as well as on a seasonal basis. In order to study the diurnal variation of sources, OC and EC were measured by a semicontinu-10 ous OC/EC analyzer and major ions were determined by a Particle-into-Liquid Sampler coupled to ion chromatographs. According to PMF, OC concentrations were impacted by four sources: biomass combustion, traffic, long-range transport and secondary production. On an annual basis the OC concentration was dominated by secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Its contribution to OC was as high as 64% in summer, which may 15 result besides anthropogenic sources also from the large biogenic VOC emissions in the boreal region. In winter biomass combustion constituted the largest fraction in OC due to domestic wood combustion for heating purposes. Traffic contributed to OC from 15 to 27%. Regarding the diurnal variation, the contribution of traffic was higher from 08:00 to 18:00 on weekdays than on weekends. The contribution of long-range 20 transport to OC was 24% on average. All four sources influenced also on the WSOC concentrations, however, the contribution of SOA was significantly larger to WSOC than to OC.