The Mechanisms of Degradation of Titanium Dental Implants
Titanium dental implants show very good properties, unfortunately there are still issues regarding material wear due to corrosion, implant loosening, as well as biological factors—allergic reactions and inflammation leading to rejection of the implanted material. In order to avoid performing reimplantation operations, changes in the chemical composition and/or modifications of the surface layer of the materials are used. This research is aimed at explaining the possible mechanisms of titanium
... nisms of titanium dissolution and the role of oxide coating, and its damage, in the enhancement of the corrosion process. The studies of new and used implants were made by scanning electron microscopy and computer tomography. The long-term chemical dissolution of rutile was studied in Ringer's solution and artificial saliva at various pH levels and room temperature. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) conjugated plasma ion spectrometry was used to determine the number of dissolved titanium ions in the solutions. The obtained results demonstrated the extremely low dissolution rate of rutile, slightly increasing along with pH. The diffusion calculations showed that the diffusion of titanium through the oxide layer at human body temperature is negligible. The obtained results indicate that the surface damage followed by titanium dissolution is initiated at the defects caused by either the manufacturing process or implantation surgery. At a low thickness of titanium oxide coating, there is a stepwise appearance and development of cracks that forms corrosion tunnels within the oxide coating.