Inhibitory effects of iron depletion plus eribulin on the breast cancer microenvironment
Background: Iron is required for the proliferation of cancer cells, and its depletion suppresses tumor growth. Eribulin mesylate (eribulin), a non-taxane microtubule inhibitor, disrupts the tumor microenvironment via vascular remodeling and obstruction of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Herein, we investigated the effects of the iron chelator on tumor-related properties of breast cancer cells and the effects of iron chelator plus eribulin on tumor growth in vivo.Methods: Two
... Methods: Two triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and BT-549, and one hormone-receptor positive breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, were used in our study. Cell proliferation, cell migration, cell cycle position, and gene expression were analyzed via MTT assays, wound-healing assays, flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, mice with breast cancer xenografts were treated with the inhibitors, alone or together, and tumor volume was determined.Results: Iron chelator inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation and decreased the proportion of S-phase cells. Conversely, it induced hypoxia, angiogenesis, EMT, and immune checkpoints, as determined by quantifying the expression of marker mRNAs in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Eribulin suppressed the expression of the hypoxia and EMT related marker mRNAs in the presence of iron chelator. Iron chelator plus eribulin inhibited tumor growth in vivo to a greater extent than did either inhibitor alone.Conclusions: Although iron chelator induces oncogenic events (hypoxia, angiogenesis, EMT, and immune checkpoints), it may be an effective treatment for breast cancer when administered in combination with eribulin.