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During gene expression, RNA polymerase (RNAP) encounters a major barrier at a nucleosome and yet must access the nucleosomal DNA. Previous in vivo evidence has suggested that multiple RNAPs might increase transcription efficiency through nucleosomes. Here we have quantitatively investigated this hypothesis using Escherichia coli RNAP as a model system by directly monitoring its location on the DNA via a single-molecule DNA-unzipping technique. When an RNAP encountered a nucleosome, it pauseddoi:10.1038/nsmb.1798 pmid:20453861 pmcid:PMC2938954 fatcat:elb6p7f2grgpxai75riohuyagq