On the origins of the Afrikaars verbal hendiadys
Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics
45 Hendiadys (Wone by means of two·) in Afrilcaans refers to a syntactic construction in which two verbal elements are connected by a conjunctive particle to express a single complex idea. The first component can be one of five verbs that denote motion (loop 'walk, go') or static modes (/2 'lie', sit 'sit', stlllJ1J 'stand', and, marginally, hang 'hang'). The second component is the main verb. The connecting particle is the conjunction en 'and'. (1) a. By loop en lees (Raidt 1983:179). 'He is
... 1983:179). 'He is walking along and reading'. b. Om Ie en wag. 'We are (lying and) waiting' . c. Hulle sit en rook op die stoep. 'They are (sitting and) smoking on the porch'. d. Sy staan en lag. 'She is (standing and) laughing. ' e. Die wasgoed hang aan die draad en droQt. 'The wash is (hanging and) drying on the line. ' The subject of the hendiadys construction is normally animate. In the spoken language, however, concrete nouns frequently occur in this grammatical environment, especially when they denote items that are closely connected to animate nouns (e.g., body parts, clothes); cf. Kempen 1965:79. Abstract nouns have been attested as subjects of hendiadys constructions but this usage is exceedingly rare. I At first glance, the hendiadys construction would appear to be nothing more than a type of compound sentence with deletion of a coreferential subject NP in the second clause. While both constructions do share common semantic properties, they differ radically in terms of their syntactic and morphological behaviour. As we see in (2) , the past participle prefix geis attached optionally to the hendiadys trigger but never to the main verb. (2) Hy het (geUoQU en lees. 'He was walking along and reading'. a. b. Ons het (geue en wag. 'We were Oying and) waiting'. c. Hulle het op die stoep (geJsjt en rook. 'They were (sitting and) smoking on the porch'. d.