The Study of Seed Germination and Dormancy of Chenopodium album, Convolvulus arvensis and Setaria viridis in Pistachio Orchards of Rafsanjan, Iran
پژوهشهای بذر ایران
In order to study the seed germination behavior and dormancy breaking methods of three weed species (i.e., Chenopodium album, Convolvulus arvensis and Setariaviridis) of pistachio orchards in Rafsanjan, Iran, three separate factorial experiments (with 2 factors) were conducted based on a completely randomized design with four replications, at the Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-E-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran, in 2014. Weed seeds were collected from five different regions of Rafsanjan, such as
... Rafsanjan, such as Markazi, Anar, Koshkoiyeh, Kabotarkhan and Nogh. Dormancy breaking treatments for Chenopodium album involved distilled water (control), KNO 3 (at 500 and 1000 ppm), chemical scarification by sulfuric acid (for 5 and 10 min), and cold stratification (for 1, 3 and 5 weeks). Treatments for Convolvulus arvensis involved distilled water (control), scarification by sandpaper, chemical scarification by sulfuric acid (20 and 30 min), and boiling water (for 15 and 30 min). Treatments for Setaria viridis involved distilled water (control), gibbereilic acid (250, 500 and 1000 ppm), KNO 3 (500 and 1000 ppm), and cold stratification (for 1, 3 and 5 weeks). The results showed that seed germination percentage (SGP) and mean germination time (MGT) of three weed species were significantly different among weed populations and dormancy breaking methods. For Chenopodium album, cold stratification of 5 weeks resulted in highest SGP (97%) in Nogh population. For Convolvulus arvensis and Setaria viridis, the highest SGP was obtained after scarification by sandpaper (98% in Kabotarkhan population), and using 1000 ppm gibbereilic acid (60% in Kabotarkhan population), respectively. In addition, increasing the weight of 1000 seeds in the three weed species in question increased SGP.