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This paper describes a method to estimate conservation voltage reduction (CVR) factors using data measured in power distribution systems. A direct method is proposed to estimate CVR factors using only data measured at the moment of the transformer tap change. The mean absolute deviation (MAD) direct method is proposed to consider direct methods and load variations. The proposed methods do not necessitate intentional tap changes for testing purposes. Instead, the voltage and load changes thatdoi:10.3390/en10122148 fatcat:n7d35svrc5ebtj4bgbq7ty3p6e