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The energy density of cosmic ray protons in star forming galaxies can be estimated from π 0decay γ-ray emission, synchrotron radio emission, and supernova rates. To galaxies for which these methods can be applied, the three methods yield consistent energy densities ranging from U p ∼ 0.1 − 1 eV cm −3 to U p ∼ 10 2 − 10 3 eV cm −3 in galaxies with low to high star-formation rates, respectively.doi:10.1051/epjconf/201713602008 fatcat:vabgbpuqhndltdgnpexomxnjaa