The Immune Functions of Keratinocytes in Skin Wound Healing

Minna Piipponen, Dongqing Li, Ning Xu Landén
2020 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
As the most dominant cell type in the skin, keratinocytes play critical roles in wound repair not only as structural cells but also exerting important immune functions. This review focuses on the communications between keratinocytes and immune cells in wound healing, which are mediated by various cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular vesicles. Keratinocytes can also directly interact with T cells via antigen presentation. Moreover, keratinocytes produce antimicrobial peptides that can
more » ... des that can directly kill the invading pathogens and contribute to wound repair in many aspects. We also reviewed the epigenetic mechanisms known to regulate keratinocyte immune functions, including histone modifications, non-protein-coding RNAs (e.g., microRNAs, and long noncoding RNAs), and chromatin dynamics. Lastly, we summarized the current evidence on the dysregulated immune functions of keratinocytes in chronic nonhealing wounds. Based on their crucial immune functions in skin wound healing, we propose that keratinocytes significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic wound inflammation. We hope this review will trigger an interest in investigating the immune roles of keratinocytes in chronic wound pathology, which may open up new avenues for developing innovative wound treatments.
doi:10.3390/ijms21228790 pmid:33233704 fatcat:zieuo5jt6vbmvbf54jd6aiacp4