City Scale Vs. Regional Scale Co-Benefits of Climate and Sustainability Policy: An Institutional Collective Action Analysis

Richard Clark Feiock
2020 International Journal of Environmental Sciences & Natural Resources  
Since the development of commercially viable plastic in the 1950s, plastics have become an increasingly important packaging option worldwide. Unfortunately, these materials are increasingly under environmental scrutiny. Larger plastic debris slowly degrades into small fragments with various sizes ranging from meter to micrometer due to changing environmental conditions. Microplastics are a complex class of heavily modified, synthetic organic particulates, which contaminate a wide range of
more » ... nments. They are a cause for concern because their size range mimics the prey size ingested by the aquatic organisms and these ingested microplastics can be potentially transferred to the higher predators. Recent studies have confirmed the ingestion of microplastics in commercially important fishes, which is ultimately consumed by humans. Thus, massive efforts are required to investigate the distribution and abundance of microplastics in the ocean, and in considering strategies to reduce the problem. Research is urgently needed, especially regarding the potential exposure and associated human health risk to micro and nano-sized plastics.
doi:10.19080/ijesnr.2020.26.556185 fatcat:bwdmls7tmraz3fgude37w4hyke