APPOSITIONS IN GERMAN AND IN TURKISH

Umut BALCI
2012 Ondokuz Mayis Univ Egitim Fakultesi  
Özet: Türkçe ve Almancada Apposition (açıklayıcı, unvan) dediğimiz ve bir ad ile onu açıklayan ikinci bir addan oluşan sözcük öbekleri vardır. Türkçe dilbilgisi kitapları bu kavramdan farklı şeyler anlamaktadır. Konunun Türkçe dilbilgisi kitapların da farklı şekillerde ele alınması bu konunun Almanca-Türkçe karşılaştırmalı bir şekilde irdelenmesi gerektiğini göstermektedir. Apposition diye nitelenen yapılar Almanca eğitimi açısından çok önemli olduğu ve önemli biçemsel işlevler yerine getirdiği
more » ... er yerine getirdiği halde bu yapılar yabancı dil eğitimi derslerinde ihmal edilmektedir. Bu nedenle bu çalışmada hem Türkçe ve Almancadaki ilgili yapılar karşılaştırılmış, hem de Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi Alman Dili Eğitimi Anabilim Dalı'ndan 24 öğrenciyle bir uygulama yapılarak durum tespiti yapılmış ve çözüme yönelik alıştırma türleri önerilmiştir. Anahtar sözcükler: Ad Öbekleri, Unvan, Açıklayıcı, Almanca Öğretimi. Abstract: Turkish and German grammar books include word parts combined with secondary nouns. We call these, which exemplify the noun, as apposition. Turkish grammar books draw different conclusions from the term Apposition and it shows that it needs to be especially explicated. The apposition can be seen as resumption of same meaningful lexical units considered as a stylistic device providing a contextdependent credibility of expression, coherence, clarity, variation, adequacy and facility. We use many appositions consciously or unconsciously both in speaking and written language. When we compare the frequency of apposition usage with the relative clause, displaying the same function, apposition is surprisingly higher. According to statistical data, in every 100 sentences chosen from any text, there are about 30 appositions. Nevertheless, the apposition receives little attention especially in grammar teaching books, sometimes it even does not. Although it's Umut BALCI and reference makes opposition about definite and indefinite or article and null article and those are seen as a unit of relevant noun phrase. It is impossible to combine both parts with an article. These morphosyntactic findings, which are built with the declination, don't play a significant role in Turkish appositional forms. Although Nida öğretmen and öğretmen Nida are semantically different from each other, Turkish grammar books rarely mention the difference. Since Turkish is an agglutinative language, the lack of article category makes it difficult between the differences of meaning in both syntactic forms. In fact it can make the rules of declination in Turkish validity, because they -the declinationcan be generalized in Turkish due to their semantic motivation and in other languages. The declined word is the reference word and the other is the apposition. Examples in Turkish grammar reveal that, both morphological and syntactic criteria are ignored and the meaning of lexeme (profession, title or kinship term) is seen as a unique way out and these lexemes are not the ones as if they can never be seen as a reference word of other appositions. The most important difference between Turkish and German appositions is that, while the appositions like ordinal numbers are used after the names of rulers in German, it is used before names in Turkish and this situation makes it difficult to learn for the student. We assume that, the learner overcomes learning problems through conscious creation of appositional exercises and they can learn to use structures of apposition as a stylistic device.
doi:10.7822/egt94 fatcat:xhxuozxg7bc4bgmvvwa4msh6hq