Machine-learned models using hematological inflammation markers in the prediction of short-term acute coronary syndrome outcomes

Konrad Pieszko, Jarosław Hiczkiewicz, Paweł Budzianowski, Janusz Rzeźniczak, Jan Budzianowski, Jerzy Błaszczyński, Roman Słowiński, Paweł Burchardt
2018 Journal of Translational Medicine  
Increased systemic and local inflammation play a vital role in the pathophysiology of acute coronary syndrome. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of selected machine learning methods and hematological markers of inflammation in predicting short-term outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: We analyzed the predictive importance of laboratory and clinical features in 6769 hospitalizations of patients with ACS. Two binary classifications were considered: significant coronary
more » ... n (SCL) or lack of SCL, and inhospital death or survival. SCL was observed in 73% of patients. In-hospital mortality was observed in 1.4% of patients and it was higher in the case of patients with SCL. Ensembles of decision trees and decision rule models were trained to predict these classifications. Results: The best performing model for in-hospital mortality was based on the dominance-based rough set approach and the full set of laboratory as well as clinical features. This model achieved 81 ± 2.4% sensitivity and 81.1 ± 0.5% specificity in the detection of in-hospital mortality. The models trained for SCL performed considerably worse. The best performing model for detecting SCL achieved 56.9 ± 0.2% sensitivity and 66.9 ± 0.2% specificity. Dominance rough set approach classifier operating on the full set of clinical and laboratory features identifies presence or absence of diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and prothrombin time as having the highest confirmation measures (best predictive value) in the detection of in-hospital mortality. When we used the limited set of variables, neutrophil count, age, systolic and diastolic pressure and heart rate (taken at admission) achieved the high feature importance scores (provided by the gradient boosted trees classifier) as well as the positive confirmation measures (provided by the dominance-based rough set approach classifier). Conclusions: Machine learned models can rely on the association between the elevated inflammatory markers and the short-term ACS outcomes to provide accurate predictions. Moreover, such models can help assess the usefulness of laboratory and clinical features in predicting the in-hospital mortality of ACS patients.
doi:10.1186/s12967-018-1702-5 fatcat:ai6ccscltfhehoceozcvzem3gi