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n s-P e t e r B u n g e 1 , M. A. R ic h a r ds 2 a n d J. R. B a u m g a rd n e r 3 of perhaps a few tens of Myr) such a method exists in the form of crude'backward' convection calculations. For longer time periods (of the order of a mantle overturn), a rigorous approach to extrapolating information back in time exists in the form of iterative nonlinear optimization methods that carry assimilated information into the past through the use of an adjoint mantle convection model.doi:10.1098/rsta.2002.1080 pmid:12460480 fatcat:is5rheoj4jg5hpsh7sklmz3whi