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The rapid development of science and technology in recent years created a standard of living that caused serious deterioration in the environment. Heavy metal contamination in the soil, surface water and groundwater is one of the major environmental problems due to their non-biodegradability and toxicity. Thus, how to solve efficiently the heavy metal pollution in groundwater has become the most essential issue around the world. Commercialized adsorbents such as activated carbon are effectivedoi:10.7763/ijesd.2013.v4.411 fatcat:v66b6trjqfh4lpb5aafetwvju4