Research Robots for Applications in Artificial Intelligence, Teleoperation and Entertainment

S.C. Jacobsen, M. Olivier, F.M. Smith, D.F. Knutti, R.T. Johnson, G.E. Colvin, W.B. Scroggin
2004 The international journal of robotics research  
Sarcos Research Corporation, and the Center for Engineering Design at the University of Utah, have long been interested in both the fundamental and the applied aspects of robots and other computationally driven machines. We have produced substantial numbers of systems that function as products for commercial applications, and as advanced research tools specifically designed for experimental use. This paper reviews various aspects of the design and control of a number of robot-like machines
more » ... ng from our first projects, the Utah Arm and the Utah/MIT Dextrous Hand, to present work on humanoid robots and the Wearable Energetically Autonomous Robot (WEAR). Our systems have been used in: entertainment, operator remotization from hazardous environments, R&D, and medicine. In addition to the robots and their subsystems, extensive work has been devoted to command systems that drive the robots. Command systems have been: playback supervisors, teleoperation masters, and various higher level approaches based on work from the AI community. Playback interfaces have included motion capture mechanisms that provide movement-stream information to storage systems configured for later, repeated and coordinated, operation of many robots and associated mechanisms. Play-back command systems use human commands, from an "earlier" time, to command motions that are played out, over and over, mindlessly. Teleoperation"masters", that operate in real-time with the robot, have ranged from simple motion capture devices, to more complex force reflective exoskeletal masters. Teleoperation interfaces have been composed of complex kinematic structures designed to perform motions compatible with operator movements and are attached via appropriate soft tissue interfaces. The masters emit lower level commands (joint angles) in real-time using the natural intelligence and sensory systems of the operator. AI-based command sources, blend higher level
doi:10.1177/0278364904042198 fatcat:g63hq7ezfnduphgw4cic34ki3i