SOME PLANT NAMES OF THE UTE INDIANS
AMERICAN ANTHR O P O L OGIS 7' [N. S o , 11, I909 This is in line with a general phenomenon resulting from a strong tendency in the language toward an easy or gliding phonetic softness. The phenomenon as it appears to me is in the frequent suppression of syllables and letters, especially of vowels. In some cases vowels are heard very lightly and in others not at all. This results in the accumulation of consonants, of which illustrations are given among the examples below. There would seem to be
... re would seem to be a more frequent shifting of the primary accent to the second syllable, or, more rarely, to the third. kwi'liv, oak, corresponds to Shoshoni and Gosiute kwi'ni up. pagwai'liv, maple, corresponds to Shoshoni and Gosiute pa'gwi ni u j . tzi'ca-gar, white, is frequently heard as tcar (cf. following word also). tsa'-Rlim, white rabbit, cottontail, is probably derived from the preceding word tu'ca-gar, meaning white, and klim, rabbit. k'sa-ha-nav, or ksa-nm, a species of willow, from Kd-tsi-, ashes, hence gray, etc., in reference to the pubescent covering, or in some plant names to the dryness of habitat, and Ka-nav-, general term for willow. The corresponding Shoshoni and Gosiute word is ku 'tsi-si-o-pi ; si'-o-pi, or shi'-n-pi, in these languages corresponding to ku-nav. Rai-siv, Cornus or kinnikinnick, corresponds to Shdshoni aii'ka-sib. Acer glabrum Torr. Maple. pa-wai-'-ziv .p a , water, + Kwi-ziv, oak. Achillea millefolium L. Yarrow. i-am'-si-fa-gwiv : i-a, wound, etc., Applied externally on bruises, etc., and also used as a tea in cases of sickness. Agropyrum repens Beauv. Blue-joint. ? wai-. Allium bisceptrum Watson, acuminatum Hook. Onion. kin'-ka. Bulbs and leaves eaten. Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. Service-berry. to-linq'. Berries were formerly an important food, being used in season and also preserved by drying for winter. Cf. Shoshoni and Gosiute fz"-tin$. Amsinckia tesselata. tu'-ka-uhp. Cf. the Gosiute ku-ni-yo-&inp. Antennaria dimorpha Torr. and Gray, etc. Everlasting. tim'-pintsau-tizl : fim-pi, rock, + n, + fsau, submerge, cover under, etc., + z h ; i. e., apparently, rock-matting plant. Arabis holboelli Hornem. Rock Cress, pfa'-ko-mnz/. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. Sage-brush. ma-azl; ma-ap. Leaves used Asclepidiora decumbens Gray. Milkweed. sa-na'-ko-mav. Aspidium filix-mas Schwartz. Wood Fern. kaZ-ban-kitn-6is : Kai-ba, mountain, -+ n, + kimhia. Astragalus iodanthus Watson. Buffalo Bean. ti'-wi-pi-tclinz-av : probably from fi-wt), earth, + fsu, fcu, press, press over, etc., + m, + tiv ; i. e., likely meaning earth or ground-matting plant, ku-si'-a-K&np . -Ru-si-, from ku-tsip, in decoction as medicine. Balsamorrhiza sagittata Nutt. C H A M B E R L~N ] PLANT NAMES OF THE U T E ZNDZANS 33 ashes, hence meaning gray or whitish, in reference to the whitish covering of pubescence so conspicuous in this plant, + a-ka, shoot, etc., + -zin@. The young shoots and leaves were formerly eaten, hence the name. Beckmannia erucaeformis Host. Slough Grass. a-.reut'-o-gzuiz~ : a-wut Berberis repens Lindl. Oregon Grape ; Barberry. ksq-o-a-nts. Betula occidentalis Hook. Birch. ? pa-gwai'-ziv. Calochortus nuttallii Torr. and Gray. Sego. si'go. The bulbs of this The Gosiute and Shoshoni Capsella bursa-pastoris Mcench. Shepherd's Purse. mo'-tin-de-ats. Capsella divaricata Walp. Shepherd's Purse (native). mo'-tZn-dt-iits. Carex jamesii Torr. Sedge. pi'gwzits (prob. pa'-gwzits). Castilleia parviflora Bong. Painted-cup. mo'-ten-dit. Root used as a Caulanthus hastatus Watson. a?i-ga-ko-rimf. Citrulus vulgaris (cultivated). Watermelon. shun-ti-kzit. Claytonia caroliniana Michx. Spring Beauty. ti-bi-wu-tczi"k. Formerly the bulbs were eaten extensively. Collinsia parviflora Dougl. rni'-pzi"-~a-shi"-~ts. Plant said to have been used externally as a remedy for sore flesh, like Gilia, q. vid. Commandra pallida A. DC. Bastard Toad-flax. su-gwa-si-2-g.zits. Roots used as a medicine in headache, etc. Cornus stolonifera n-va-tu-tzi~~~-dzitc-.zi?~z-av. Cf. the Shoshoni aii-ka-sib, this name referring to the red bark ( " r e d willow," probably). The Ute name seems to be condensed. The roots also were eaten to some extent. plant were formerly much used as food. name is identical. Iqtroduced into the region. medicine in bowel trouble. Cowania mexicana Don. Cliff Rose. pu-i'-tc.zim-av. Cymopteris longipes Watson. o-an-tziv. Leaves formerly boiled and eaten as food. I t seems probable that the Shoshoni name for this plant, tui'yan-dzi) (toilya-bz, mountain, + n, + dzip), preserves most nearly the original form, and that the Ute o-an-tziv and the Gosiute an-dsi2p' are abbreviated. Cystopteris fragilis Bernh. Fern. tim-pim-ziv : tim-pi, rock, + m, + ziv. Delphinium menziesii DC. and bicolor Nutt. Larkspur. sa-pa-Tint. Draba nemorosa L. Whitlow Grass. kus-pa-sen-dz-at. Eleocharis palustris R. Br. Spike-rush. pa-a"-ga-da-pin-tid : pa-o, referring to water, + ga-da-pjn-tid. AM. ANTH , N. s., I 1-3 A ME RlCA N A NTHR 0 POL 0 G l S T [N. S., 11, I909 34 Elymus canadensis L. Lyme Grass. o-do-rzim-biv. Seeds formerly gathered as food. Eragrostis purshii Schrad. kaib'-o-gwjv : kai-ba, mountain, + 0 -p i v . Erigeron canus Gray. Fleabane. ? sa-gzirrz-si-ta-gwiv. Eriogonum ovalifolium Nutt. Silver-plant. K'szim-sZrZ.au-ge-its : probably from ku-tsirn, ashen, gray, etc., + ski-afi-ge-its. Used as medicine. Equisetum arvense L. Horsetail. ( a ) fertile stems, tu-ko-wzits; ( b ) sterile stems, to-tsi-wiits. Equisetum laevigatum Braun. Scouring-rush. ya-a'-ti-nzin@. Likely fromya-a-gi, cry, call out, etc., + t, + -nlitnj, instrument, etc., in reference to its use by children as whistles. Eragrostis' purshii Schrad. Kaib'-o-piv. Erodium cicutarium L' her. Storks-bill ; Alfilaria. pa'-bo-i-ats. Erysimum asperum DC. sa'-go-a"-sint. Ferula multifida Gray. to-tliv. The root furnishes one of the medicines most highly valued among this and related peoples. It is especially applied externally upon wounds and bruises, being first reduced to a pulp between stones or in a mortar. It is also used for distemper in horses ; for this purpose it is burned in a pan held beneath the horse's nose. Fritillaria atropurpurea Nutt. Tiger Lily ; Brown Lily. kaz'-rCm-si- ta-gwiv. The bulbs and roots used as medicine in the form of a decoction. It is said to be taken but sparingly because in larger quantities it is regarded as dangerously poisonous. Fritillaria pudica Spreng. Buttercup ; Yellow Bell. pinz'-i-kwi-its. Formerly the bulbs were used as food. Gilia gracilis Hook. yo-gzim-si-la-gwiv : yo'-p-vit~, coyote, + m, + si-ta-gwjv, medicine. Used as a poultice on bruised or sore leg. In this connection cf. the Shosnoni nanie for this little Gilia, so abundant in the region : i-am-bip, the first part of which would seem to refer to wound. Glaux maritima L. Sea-milkwort. tslin'-a-na-di-its. Grass (general term). 0'-wiv. Grayia polygaloides Hook and Am. Shad Scale. ? sa'-mGv. Grindelia squarrosa Dunal. Gum-plant. Ku-ats-zim-si-ia-gw2v : Ku-Said to be used as Lesser Rabbit Brush ; Torch-ats + a h , possessive, + si-ta-piv, medicine. a cough medicine. Cf. Senecio. weed. sh@nlp. gwiv, medicine. Occasionally used as medicine. Juncus balticus Deth. Bog-Rush. pau-wZ2z1. Corresponding to the Shoshoni and Gosiute name for the same plant, pa'hwap, also heard more fully as pa'-liin-zip : pa-iinz, aquatic, + up. Juniperus californica var. utahensis. Cedar. wap. The name is probably from wa-a$, meaning, in some dialects (e. g., Shoshoni), to burn, the reference probably being to the use of the bark, etc., in making slow-match and for kindling purposes. Krynitzkia sericea Gray. yu'-bi-slind-&np. Root used as stomach medicine. Lathyrus ornatus Nutt. Everlasting Pea. sa-gwa'-sa-int. Lepidium intermedium Gray. Pepper-grass. sad-ga-mi-ants. Lepidium sativum. Pepper-grass. wa'-to-nza-siz~. Lithospermum pilosum Nutt. Gromwell. tszit-kzip. Roots used as I have seen it Lonicera utahensis Watson. Woodbine. te-2d-kav : te-a, ti-a, deer, + Cf. the Gosiute name for this plant : pawi-2x-a'i-kzip, mean-? Malvastrum munroanum Gray. False Mallow. sa-gw2in-na-ga-ats. Matricaria discoidea DC. May-apple. (via) -mo-a-na-nlin@. Used as Orogenia linearifolia Watson. pin-'Ra-pai-ats. Pachystima myrsinites Raf. Box. te-2-kav. Cf. Lonicera. Pentstemon glaber Pursh. Beard-tongue. mzi-tc2m-bi-a. Phacelia menziesii Torr. Phlox longifolia Nutt. Phlox ; Sweet William. (?no) -mu-'kwi-?ts. Pinus mojophylla (nuts of). Pine-nuts. ti-va. Populus angustifolia James. Cottonwood. sho-an : sho + av, from Potentilla anserina L. Five finger. gte'-ii%gizl. Pteris aquilina L. Brachen. Rai-ban-Rim-his : kai-ba, mountain, + n, + Kim-bis. See also Aspidium filix-mas Schwartz. Quercus undulata var. Rocky Mountain Oak ; Scrub Oak. kwi'&v. The Gosiute form is kwi-ni-zip, and is sometimes heard as ku-ni-6p. medicine in form of decoction ; diuretic in action. used by an old couple for this purpose. kuv. ing elk food. a medicine. ? ( m a ) -mZ2'-tZm-bi-a. o-pi, wood. Cf. Gosiute so-o+i. A MERlCA N A NTHR 0 POL 0 GZS T [N. S., 11, 1909 Salix longifolia Muhl. Willow. k a-nav'. Used in basketry, etc. Scirpus validus Vahl. Bulrush. f'su-sazp. Lower, tender portions Senecio sp. Groundsel. ko-afs-inz-si-fa-gwiv : ko-ats, + Pm, posses-Shepherdia argentea Nutt. Buffalo-berry. af-gdt-a-gzoiv. Berries Shepherdia canadensis Nutt. ia-ma-nzimp. Sisymbrium canescens Nutt. Hedge Mustard. po-e'-fcim-In. Used as medicine. Smilacina amplexicaulis Nutt. False Solomon's Seal. yo-gwo'-tania-nlinlp : yo-go-zCfc, coyote, + ta-ma-nlimp. Cf. the Gosiute i-tcu-pain-jo-go-nlif, from i-icu-pa, coyote, + n, possessive, + po-gonlip, berry, i. e . , Solanum tuberosum (cultivated). Potato fsi%. Transferred from the name of a native plant. Streptanthus cordatus Nutt. o-nlin-ga-ats. Taraxicum officinale Weber. Dandelion. (mo)-mzin'-fi-ad-ps?j~. Tellima pamiflora Hook. a%-gai-ya-ga-ti-nimp. Trifolium, general term. Clover. ma'-pi-ants ; mli'-pi-ants. Trifolium pratense L. (introduced). Red Clover. ?sa-gwa-in-di-z2p. Triglochin maritimum I,. Arrow-grass. pa'-sau-wa-dint. Troximon sp. a%-'ka-pi-sa-wats. Leaves formerly eaten, like the Berries used as food. eaten. sive, + si-fa-gwiv. Used as medicine. Cf. Grindelia. formerly used as food to some extent. coyote berry.' Leaves formerly used as food. Cf. the Shoshoni mli-tca-gi-a. dandelion. CHAMBERLIN] PLANT NAMES OF THE UTE INDIANS 37 Valerianella congesta. iii2i-go-i-ints. Veronica aggerata Speedwell. pu'-i-ants. Vicia americana Muhl. Vetch. Ka-na-fe'-iinfs ; pu-i-pi-zim-av : pu-i-ji, blue, + zim, + au. The second name refers to the blue or purplish flower and is probably general. Viola beckwithii. Wild Pansy. ka-barn-si-fa-gwiv : ka-ba, horse, + m, + si'-fa-gwiz~, medicine. Viola canina L. var. sylvestris Regel. Violet. sau'-o-ma-unfs. Viola cucullata Ait. Violet. sau-id-in-do-&. Roots used as medicine. Zygadenus nuttallii Gray. Poison Sego. ta-bii'-si-piv : ta'-bi, sun, The bulbs of this plant are poison, The sego proper is + si-go, + iv, 'sun sego.' hence the common name as given above. Calochortus nuttallii. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PLANTS ACCORDING TO UTE NAMES aZ-gaiya-ga-fi-nz2rnp. Tellima parviflora Hook. a%-ga-ko-rimp. Caulanthus hastatus Watson. Rose. a@-ga-si-zi%-giv. Rosa fendleri Crepin. Buffalo-berry. afi-gu-i-znts. Valerianella congesta. a%-@f-a-pizi. Shepherdia argentea Nutt. a#-Ka-pi-sa-wats. Troximon sp. a-va-fu-fzim-bzifc-zin2-azi. Cornus stolonifera Michx. Kinnikinnick ; a-Waf-a-gwiv. Beckmannia eruczformis Host. Slough Grass. i-am'-si-ta-piv. Achillea millefolium L. Yarrow. Ka-bam-si-fa-pki. Viola beckwithii. Wild Pansy. Kai'ban-Kim-bis. Aspidium filix-mas Schwartz, Pteris aquilina L. Wood Kaib-o-gwiv. Eragrostis purshii Schrad. Anders ; Salix lasiandra hip-o-a-ats. Berberis repens Lindl. Oregon Grape ; Barberry. Cornel. Cf. kar'siv. fern ; Bracken. lily. Benth. var. ; Salix cordata Muhl.