NADPH Oxidase in the Renal Medulla Causes Oxidative Stress and Contributes to Salt-Sensitive Hypertension in Dahl S Rats

N. E. Taylor, P. Glocka, M. Liang, A. W. Cowley
2006 Hypertension  
Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats exhibit increased renal medullary oxidative stress and blood pressure salt-sensitivity compared with consomic, salt-resistant SS-13 BN rats, despite highly similar genetic backgrounds. The present study examined potential sources of renal medullary superoxide in prehypertensive SS rats fed a 0.4% NaCl diet by assessing activity and protein levels of superoxide producing and scavenging enzymes. Superoxide production was nearly doubled in SS rats compared with SS-13
more » ... N rats as determined by urinary 8-isoprostane excretion and renal medullary oxy-ethidium microdialysate levels. Medullary superoxide production in tissue homogenates was greater in SS rats, and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium preferentially reduced SS levels to those found in SS-13 BN rats. Dinitrophenol, a mitochondrial uncoupler, eliminated the remaining superoxide production in both strains, whereas inhibition of xanthine oxidase, NO synthase, and cycloxygenase had no effect. L-arginine, NO synthase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities between SS and SS-13 BN rats did not differ. Chronic blood pressure responses to a 4% NaCl diet were then determined in the presence or absence of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (3.5 g/kg per minute), chronically delivered directly into the renal medulla. Apocynin infusion reduced renal medullary interstitial superoxide from 1059Ϯ130 to 422Ϯ80 (oxyethidium fluorescence units) and mean arterial pressure from 175Ϯ4 to 157Ϯ6 mm Hg in SS rats, whereas no effects on either were observed in the SS-13 BN . We conclude that excess renal medullary superoxide production in SS rats contributes to salt-induced hypertension, and NADPH oxidase is the major source of the excess superoxide. (Hypertension. 2006;47:692-698.)
doi:10.1161/01.hyp.0000203161.02046.8d pmid:16505210 fatcat:ghpaza2tijbt5gumwq3ad3aoqq