Solar Radiation Pressure Models for BeiDou-3 I2-S Satellite: Comparison and Augmentation
As one of the most essential modeling aspects for precise orbit determination, solar radiation pressure (SRP) is the largest non-gravitational force acting on a navigation satellite. This study focuses on SRP modeling of the BeiDou-3 experimental satellite I2-S (PRN C32), for which an obvious modeling deficiency that is related to SRP was formerly identified. The satellite laser ranging (SLR) validation demonstrated that the orbit of BeiDou-3 I2-S determined with empirical 5-parameter Extended
... parameter Extended CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) Orbit Model (ECOM1) has the sun elongation angle (ε angle) dependent systematic error, as well as a bias of approximately −16.9 cm. Similar performance has been identified for European Galileo and Japanese QZSS Michibiki satellite as well, and can be reduced with the extended ECOM model (ECOM2), or by using the a priori SRP model to augment ECOM1. In this study, the performances of the widely used SRP models for GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) satellites, i.e., ECOM1, ECOM2, and adjustable box-wing model have been compared and analyzed for BeiDou-3 I2-S satellite. In addition, the a priori SRP models are derived based on analytical cuboid box model and empirically spectra analysis, respectively. Use of the a priori model combined with ECOM1 was finally demonstrated to reduce the ε-angle-dependent systematic error, and thus improved the radial orbit accuracy by nearly 35 per cent when compared to the solution with standalone ECOM1, as revealed by the one way SLR residuals. E1/E5a/E5b signals, and the elevation-dependent code biases, which have been previously identified to exist in the code observations of the BeiDou-2 satellites, seem to be not obvious for BeiDou-3 satellites, as demonstrated in  . These improvements ease the precise data processing of BeiDou. The stability of onboard frequency standards has been improved by a factor of 10, and can be compared to the latest type of rubidium atomic frequency standards employed onboard the GPS IIF satellites, as well as the passive hydrogen masers used onboard the Galileo satellites. A continuous yaw-steering (YS) attitude model is used to avoid the significant orbit accuracy degeneration when a satellite switches its attitude mode  . Thanks to the above improvements, the better POD performance has been achieved for BeiDou-3 experimental satellites, except for BeiDou-3 I2-S (PRN C32) satellite, for which an apparent linear sun elongation angle (ε angle) dependent systematic error has been observed in the satellite laser ranging (SLR) residuals. Without any doubt, the systematic error is original form the deficiency of non-gravitational force models, particularly in the solar radiation pressure (SRP) model. The similar error was also observed for European Galileo and Japanese QZSS Michibiki satellite's orbits determined with the 5-parameter extended CODE orbit model (called ECOM1 in this study) [4, 5] . To reduce the deficiency of the ECOM1 for the Galileo satellites, an a priori SRP model based on a generic box-wing model (hereafter called cuboid model) in YS mode to augment the ECOM1 was established  . With this a priori model, the peak magnitude of radial orbit errors was reduced from presently 20 cm down to 5 cm for Galileo IOV satellites outside eclipse phases, and similar performance has also been achieved for Galileo Full-Operational-Capability (FOC) satellites  . With approximate body dimensions, optical properties as well as mass, the QZSS Michibiki's a priori cuboid model has been obtained, which improves the orbit to a better than 10 cm RMS consistency with SLR measurements  . The reasons for that type of model are that Galileo and QZSS Michibiki satellites have a markedly elongated shape instead of a cuboid one, as well as a large area-to-mass ratio. Alternatively, the revised version of ECOM (ECOM2) also has the potential to reduce such kind of error, i.e., for Galileo and QZSS Michibiki satellites , although the primer aim of the model is to reduce the draconitic errors in GNSS geodetic products  . Besides, the adjustable box-wing model (ABW) can also reduce this error, because the model is derived from the physical theory, and can fit real tracking data well, as shown for QZSS Michibiki satellite  . In this study, the performances of the above mentioned ECOM1, ECOM2, and ABW models for BeiDou-3 I2-S will be compared and analyzed. In addition, the a priori SRP models to augment the ECOM1 model will be derived based on analytical cuboid box model and empirically spectra analysis. We prefer the a priori model, as the additionally introduced higher-order harmonics in ECOM2 may increase the sensitivity to other modeling errors and result in a slightly degraded performance during certain mission phase. For ABW model, problems of observability likewise affect its use, as there are quite strong correlations between the estimation parameters. Following short descriptions of the yaw attitude and body structure of BeiDou-3 I2-S satellite, the ECOM1 and ECOM2 model, as well as the ABW and cuboid models will be presented in Section 2. In Section 3, the comparison and analysis of performance of these models for BeiDou-3 I2-S will be presented. Based on these results, an empirical a priori model to augment the ECOM1 will be established by fitting the reconstructed SRP acceleration to the predetermined formulae after spectral density analysis with fast Fourier transformation (FFT) approach in Section 4. In addition, the parameters for the cuboid model will also be presented. Afterwards, the developed models will be validated in Section 5. Finally, this study is summarized and concluded in Section 6. Characteristics and SRP Models for BeiDou-3 I2-S Satellite The details of the optical and geometrical properties, as well as the attitude of satellite bus and solar panels (SP), are essential for the modeling of non-gravitational forces. In this section, these data as well as SRP models for BeiDou-3 I2-S satellite will be presented.