Unique Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences SKELETAL AND DENTAL FLUOROSIS MAPPING IN AN ENDEMIC VILLAGE OF KORBA DISTRICT IN CHHATTISGARH STATE, INDIA
Context: Endemic fluorosis due to high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem in certain pockets of Chhattisgarh, India. The risk of fluorosis was highest in that area which shows more fluoride content in drinking water. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of the skeletal and dental fluorosis among the population and to assess its relation to the drinking water fluoride level. Methods and Material: A descriptive, cross-sectional study with a clinical
... clinical examination by door to door visit and follow-up visits undertaken in Phulsar village and Korbi Hamlet, of Korba district, of Chhattisgarh state in the Oct 2013. Drinking water sources of individuals were mapped residing in paras (clusters) and quantitative assessment of fluoride concentration of drinking water was done in that area. Settings and Design: Cross sectional community based design by census method. Results: A total of 97% houses and 88% population of the village was covered and clinically examined for skeletal and dental fluorosis. The survey covered 1087 (85%) individuals in which 534 were female and 553 were male. Dental fluorosis and genu varum are the commonest type of fluorosis among surveyed inhabitants followed by genu vulgum and kyphosis. 2.72% inhabitants are having multiple deformities. Highest prevalence of skeletal fluorosis in children's (6.3%) and adults (26.6%) are at maximum fluoride level in drinking water sources of 2.5 ppm and 3.5 ppm, respectively. The prevalence of skeletal fluorosis was more common above 45 years among both sexes while lower in the children less than 12 years of age. High prevalence of fluorosis was recorded in all surveyed hamlets, which had also the highest fluoride level (>3.00 ppm.) in the drinking water source. Conclusions: This study reaffirms the relationship of fluorosis with high fluoride levels content in drinking water. Dental fluorosis can be easily recognized, the skeletal involvement is not clinically obvious until the advanced stage of crippling is reached. Change in water source from deep tube well and a hand pump to piped water supply with health education to the community is necessary in order to reduce the problem.