Automation Management Strategies: Pilot Preferences and Operational Experiences

Wesley A. Olson, Nadine B. Sarter
2000 The International journal of aviation psychology  
With the evolution of technology from passive tool to highly independent agent, it is becoming increasingly important to support operators in coordinating human and machine intentions and actions. One way to achieve this goal is the context-sensitive use and implementation of different automation management strategies. This study examined pilots' preferences for and their operational experiences with 3 different strategies-management-by-consent, management-by-exception, and full automation.
more » ... ull automation. Pilots expressed a strong preference for management-by-consent in which the automation cannot take action unless explicit pilot consent has been received. High time pressure, high workload, and low task criticality led to a shift in pilots' preferences toward management-by-exception in which the automation can initiate actions on its own. These preferences can be explained, in part, by pilots' operational experiences with existing cockpit systems that illustrate that human-machine coordination is a complex process involving the negotiation of multiple goals, activities, and strategies rather than simply assuming manual control in case of disagreements.
doi:10.1207/s15327108ijap1004_2 fatcat:75asl7zd2jaxtaa3cclhbyfzha