Can we predict patient outcome before extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory cardiac arrest?
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Refractory cardiac arrest resistant to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (C-CPR) has a poor outcome. Although previous reports showed that extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) can improve the clinical outcome, there are no clinically applicable predictors of patient outcome that can be used prior to the implementation of E-CPR. We aimed to evaluate the use of clinical factors in patients with refractory cardiac arrest undergoing E-CPR to predict patient outcome in our
... nt outcome in our institution. This is a single-center retrospective study. We report 112 patients presenting with refractory cardiac arrest resistant to C-CPR between January 2012 and November 2017. All patients received E-CPR for continued life support when a cardiogenic etiology was presumed. Clinical factors associated with patient outcome were analyzed. Significant pre-ECMO clinical factors were extracted to build a patient outcome risk prediction model. The overall survival rate at discharge was 40.2, and 30.4% of patients were discharged with good neurologic function. The six-month survival rate after hospital discharge was 36.6, and 25.9% of patients had good neurologic function 6 months after discharge. We stratified the patients into low-risk (n = 38), medium-risk (n = 47), and high-risk groups (n = 27) according to the TLR score (low-flow Time, cardiac arrest Location, and initial cardiac arrest Rhythm) that we derived from pre-ECMO clinical parameters. Compared with the medium-risk and high-risk groups, the low-risk group had better survival at discharge (65.8% vs. 42.6% vs. 0%, p < 0.0001) and at 6 months (60.5% vs. 38.3% vs. 0%, p = 0.0001). The low-risk group also had a better neurologic outcome at discharge (50% vs. 31.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.0001) and 6 months after discharge (44.7% vs. 25.5% vs. 0%, p = 0.0003) than the medium-risk and high-risk groups. Patients with refractory cardiac arrest receiving E-CPR can be stratified by pre-ECMO clinical factors to predict the clinical outcome. Larger-scale studies are required to validate our observations.