Biochemical and Histopathological Alterations in Different Tissues of Rats Due to Repeated Oral Dose Toxicity of Cymoxanil
Evaluating potential adverse health impacts caused by pesticides is an important parameter in human toxicity. This study focuses on the importance of subchronic toxicity assessment of cymoxanil fungicide in rats with special reference to target biochemical enzymes and histopathological changes in different tissues. In this regard, a 21-day toxicity study with repeated cymoxanil oral doses was conducted. It has been shown that low doses (0.5 mg/kg) were less effective than medium (1 mg/kg) and
... ium (1 mg/kg) and high (2 mg/kg) doses. Moreover, high dose dose-treated rats showed piecemeal necrosis in the liver, interstitial nephritis and tubular degeneration in the kidneys, interstitial pneumonia and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia in the lungs, gliosis, spongiosis, and malacia in the brain, and testicular edema and degeneration in the testes. Cymoxanil significantly increased AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and liver, indicating tissue necrosis and possible leakage of these enzymes into the bloodstream. Creatinine levels increased, indicating renal damage. Similarly, significant inhibition was recorded in brain acetylcholinesterase, indicating that both synaptic transmission and nerve conduction were affected. Importantly, these histopathological and biochemical alterations were dose-dependent. Taken together, our study reported interesting biochemical and histopathological alterations in different rat tissues following repeated toxicity with oral doses of cymoxanil. Our study suggests future studies on different pesticides at different concentrations that would help urge governments to create more restrictive regulations concerning these compounds' levels.