Relevance of sampling schemes in light of Ruelle's linear response theory
We reconsider the theory of the linear response of non-equilibrium steady states to perturbations. We first show that by using a general functional decomposition for space-time dependent forcings, we can define elementary susceptibilities that allow to construct the response of the system to general perturbations. Starting from the definition of SRB measure, we then study the consequence of taking different sampling schemes for analysing the response of the system. We show that only a specific
... at only a specific choice of the time horizon for evaluating the response of the system to a general time-dependent perturbation allows to obtain the formula first presented by Ruelle. We also discuss the special case of periodic perturbations, showing that when they are taken into consideration the sampling can be fine-tuned to make the definition of the correct time horizon immaterial. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results in terms of strategies for analyzing the outputs of numerical experiments by providing a critical review of a formula proposed by Reick.