Implications of the Global Energy Transition on Russia [chapter]

James Henderson, Tatiana Mitrova
2020 Lecture notes in Energy  
The current energy transition can be viewed as the fourth in a series of similar fundamental structural transformations of the global energy sector. V. Smil defines the first energy transition-from biomass to coal-as the period between 1840 and 1890 during which the share of coal in the energy balance increased from 5 to 50% (Smil 2018). The second energy transition is associated with the fast penetration of oil-its share grew from 3% in 1915 to 45% by 1975-and the third transition involved the
more » ... sition involved the partial replacement of both coal and oil by natural gas, the share of which increased from 3% in 1930 to 23% in 2017. All these transitions were driven by the comparatively higher economic efficiency of the new energy sources. Currently, however, as we are talking about the beginning of the fourth energy transition (from fossil fuels to low-carbon energy sources), the situation is quite different. The share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) (excluding hydro) in total primary energy consumption in 2017 was 3%, but it is now expanding very quickly. In this fourth energy transition, in contrast to the previous three, a qualitative new driver is becoming critically important, namely, combating global climate change, which has led to the establishment of compulsory energy sector decarbonization targets. In a more specific sense, energy transition is a translation of the German term "Energiewende", which came into international use in the early 2010s after the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant (OSCE 2013; Trüby and Schiffer 2018). As one of the most ambitious decarbonization projects for the energy sector on a
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-39066-2_5 fatcat:t66yuqxanfcnpobn6ycgpzm2hi