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Annals of Glaciology
An ice sheet with fixed boundary conditions may have two steady configurations, as shown by a new one-dimensional model including the physics and continuity of ice, water, and deforming subglacial till. In one steady state, a steep surface slope causes rapid internal ice shearing but forces basal water through subglacial aquifers, suppressing basal velocity; in the other steady state, a gentle surface slope causes only slow ice shearing but allows water to lubricate the ice-bed interface anddoi:10.1017/s0260305500008132 fatcat:6gg4vwz3wrbebiu6zrfguhmlze