Comprehensive Review of Artificial Neural Network Applications to Pattern Recognition
The era of artificial neural network (ANN) began with a simplified application in many fields and remarkable success in pattern recognition (PR) even in manufacturing industries. Although significant progress achieved and surveyed in addressing ANN application to PR challenges, nevertheless, some problems are yet to be resolved like whimsical orientation (the unknown path that cannot be accurately calculated due to its directional position). Other problem includes; object classification,
... n, scaling, neurons behavior analysis in hidden layers, rule, and template matching. Also, the lack of extant literature on the issues associated with ANN application to PR seems to slow down research focus and progress in the field. Hence, there is a need for state-of-the-art in neural networks application to PR to urgently address the abovehighlights problems for more successes. The study furnishes readers with a clearer understanding of the current, and new trend in ANN models that effectively addresses PR challenges to enable research focus and topics. Similarly, the comprehensive review reveals the diverse areas of the success of ANN models and their application to PR. In evaluating the performance of ANN models, some statistical indicators for measuring the performance of the ANN model in many studies were adopted. Such as the use of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), and variance of absolute percentage error (VAPE). The result shows that the current ANN models such as GAN, SAE, DBN, RBM, RNN, RBFN, PNN, CNN, SLP, MLP, MLNN, Reservoir computing, and Transformer models are performing excellently in their application to PR tasks. Therefore, the study recommends the research focus on current models and the development of new models concurrently for more successes in the field. INDEX TERMS Artificial neural networks, application to pattern recognition, feedforward neural networks, feedback neural networks, hybrid models.