Wheat phyllosphere yeasts degrade propiconazole
Background: Yeasts, which are ubiquitous in agroecosystems, are known to degrade various xenobiotics. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of fungicides on the abundance of natural yeast communities colonizing winter wheat leaves, to evaluate the sensitivity of yeast isolates to fungicides in vivo, and to select yeasts that degrade propiconazole. Results: Fungicides applied during the growing season generally did not affect the counts of endophytic yeasts colonizing wheat leaves.
... g wheat leaves. Propiconazole and a commercial mixture of flusilazole and carbendazim decreased the counts of epiphytic yeasts, but the size of the yeast community was restored after 10 days. Epoxiconazole and a commercial mixture of fluoxastrobin and prothioconazole clearly stimulated epiphyte growth. The predominant species isolated from leaves were Aureobasidium pullulans and Rhodotorula glutinis . In the disk diffusion test, 14 out of 75 yeast isolates were not sensitive to any of the tested fungicides. After 48 hours of incubation in an aqueous solution of propiconazole, the Rhodotorula glutinis Rg 55 isolate degraded the fungicide in 75%. Isolates Rh. glutinis Rg 92 and Rg 55 minimized the phytotoxic effects of propiconazole under greenhouse conditions. The first isolate contributed to an increase in the dry matter content of wheat seedlings, whereas the other reduced the severity of chlorosis. Conclusion: Not sensitivity of many yeast colonizing wheat leaves on the fungicides and the potential of isolate Rhodotorula glutinis Rg 55 to degrade of propiconazole was established. Yeast may partially eliminate the ecologically negative effect of fungicides.