A Working Hypothesis Regarding Identical Pathomechanisms between Clinical Efficacy and Adverse Reaction of Clozapine via the Activation of Connexin43
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Clozapine (CLZ) is an approved antipsychotic agent for the medication of treatment-resistant schizophrenia but is also well known as one of the most toxic antipsychotics. Recently, the World Health Organization's (WHO) global database (VigiBase) reported the relative lethality of severe adverse reactions of CLZ. Agranulocytosis is the most famous adverse CLZ reaction but is of lesser lethality compared with the other adverse drug reactions of CLZ. Unexpectedly, VigiBase indicated that the
... ated that the prevalence and relative lethality of pneumonia, cardiotoxicity, and seizures associated with CLZ were more serious than that of agranulocytosis. Therefore, haematological monitoring in CLZ patients monitoring system provided success in the prevention of lethal adverse events from CLZ-induced agranulocytosis. Hereafter, psychiatrists must amend the CLZ patients monitoring system to protect patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia from severe adverse CLZ reactions, such as pneumonia, cardiotoxicity, and seizures, according to the clinical evidence and pathophysiology. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of clinical efficacy and the adverse reactions of CLZ based on the accumulating pharmacodynamic findings of CLZ, including tripartite synaptic transmission, and we propose suggestions for amending the monitoring and medication of adverse CLZ reactions associated with pneumonia, cardiotoxicity, and seizures.