Defining the complex interactions between the intestinal microbiota, mucus secretion, and infection

Marta Wlodarska
2014
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating disease characterized by chronic inflammation caused by multiple factors involving the immune system, intestinal microbiota and epithelial barrier. Microbial dysbiosis is implicated in disease, as there are significant differences in the microbiota composition between affected and healthy individuals. It is not clear if deterioration of microbial composition results in disease or is a consequence of disease. Mucus production by goblet cells
more » ... by goblet cells serves as one of the crucial mucosal defenses at the interface between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and yet the immunoregulatory pathways involved remain uncharacterized. The inner mucus layer of the intestine functions as a barrier, which serves to minimize microbial translocation, prevents excessive immune activation, and decrease infection. Here we have described methodology to alter the thickness of the inner mucus layer through treatment with antibiotic or a phytonutrient. We showed that the antibiotic metronidazole caused significant thinning of the inner mucus layer accompanied by a dramatic change in the microbial community structure. In contrast, treatment with the phytochemical eugenol resulted in significant thickening of the inner mucus layer that was accompanied by a change in the microbial community. These changes in community structure were complementary; DNA sequencing showed that groups depleted by metronidazole treatment were more abundant with eugenol treatment. To investigate how changes in the integrity of the inner mucus layer affect intestinal defense, Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) was used to examine susceptibility to enteric-induced colitis. Metronidazole-induced reduction in mucus thickness correlated with exacerbated severity of Cr-induced colitis. Thickening of the inner mucus layer with eugenol treatment resulted in protection from Cr-induced colitis. Further, we identified a novel innate immune pathway involved in regulation of goblet cell function and mucus layer production. The NLRP6 inflam [...]
doi:10.14288/1.0103417 fatcat:xezuay2mkzgc7nzcipmlfvrgkm