Fluids in the Siilinjärvi carbonatite complex, eastern Finland: Fluid inclusion evidence for the formation conditions of zircon and apatite
Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland
POUTIAINEN, MATTI. 1995. Fluids in the Siilinjärvi carbonatite complex, eastern Finland: Fluid inclusion evidence for the formation conditions of zircon and apatite. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland 67, Part 1, In the studied zircon and apatite crystals, data recorded two different compositional types of fluid inclusions: Type 1 H,0-C0, low salinity inclusions (XCO, = 0.42 to 0.87; XNaCl = 0.001 to 0.005) with bulk densities of 0.73 to 0.87 g/cm
... 0.73 to 0.87 g/cm 3 , and Type 2 H,0 moderate salinity (XNaCl = 0.03 to 0.06) inclusions with densities of 0.83 to 1.02 g/cm 3 . The Type 1 inclusions are not present in apatite. In zircon, the observed fluid inclusion types occur in separate domains: around (Type 1) and outside (Type 2) the apparent core. Fluid inclusions are further subdivided into pseudosecondary and secondary inclusions. Using a combination of SEM-EDS, optical characteristics and crushing-stage, various daughter and captive minerals were identified. The fluid inclusion data suggest that the pseudosecondary Type 1 and Type 2 inclusions in zircon and apatite were trapped during the pre-emplacement evolution of the carbonatite at mid-crustal conditions (P>4 kbar, T> 625°C). The Type 1 fluid was depleted in CO, during crystal fractionation and cooling leading to a fluid phase enriched in water and alkalies. Fenitization was obviously induced by these saline aqueous fluids. During emplacement of the carbonatite to the present level, zircon phenocrysts were intensively fractured, some Type 1 inclusions were re-equilibrated, and multiphase Type 2 inclusions were trapped. It is assumed that all these inclusions in zircon and the pseudosecondary Type 2 inclusions in apatite have a magmatic origin. In apatite, calcite inclusions occur side-by-side with the secondary Type 2 inclusions. These calcites co-existed with the aqueous fluid during fracturing and metamorphic re-crystallization of apatites. Probably, this metamorphic fluid also is responsible for the transport and deposition of at least some of the calcite at low temperatures (200-350°C).