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Studies in Computational Intelligence
Bi-level programming problems arise in situations when the decision maker has to take into account the responses of the users to his decisions. Several problems arising in engineering and economics can be cast within the bi-level programming framework. The bi-level programming model is also known as a Stackleberg or leader-follower game in which the leader chooses his variables so as to optimise his objective function, taking into account the response of the follower(s) who separately optimisedoi:10.1007/978-3-642-37838-6_6 fatcat:m3rvcjqijfgz7fzq2ggqtgjxyi