Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Endurance Performance and Cardiovascular Function
REVIEW ARTICLE ISSN(Print) : 1226-1726 ISSN(Online) 2384-0544 PURPOSE: Fish oil contains omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3). Consumption of EPA and DHA has been expected to improve fatigue recovery, endurance performance, antioxidant production, and anti-inflammatory responses. Therefore, this review aimed to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid on endurance performance as evaluated by human and animal studies and
... imal studies and summarizes its effects on cardiovascular and endothelial functions. METHODS: This review summarized the effects of EPA and DHA supplementation on the maximum oxygen uptake, exercise economy, muscle endurance performance, and cardiovascular and endothelial functions. RESULTS: Effects of EPA and DHA supplementation on the maximum oxygen uptake are controversial. However, it has been suggested to improve the exercise economy and make the continuation of exercise easier. EPA and DHA supplementation could also improve endurance performance in the peripheral muscles. In addition, they may improve cardiovascular and vascular endothelial functions at rest and have positive effects on the heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output during a submaximal exercise. CONCLUSIONS: This review concluded that EPA and DHA are considered effective in improving endurance performance in the peripheral muscles and cardiovascular function. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.