On the Precursory Abnormal Animal Behavior and Electromagnetic Effects for the Kobe Earthquake (M~6) on April 12, 2013

Masashi Hayakawa, Hiroyuki Yamauchi, Nobuyo Ohtani, Mitsuaki Ohta, Susumu Tosa, Tomokazu Asano, Alexander Schekotov, Jun Izutsu, Stelios M. Potirakis, Konstantinos Eftaxias
2016 Open Journal of Earthquake Research  
After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (EQ), there have been numerous aftershocks in the eastern and Pacific Ocean of Japan, but EQs are still rare in the western part of Japan. In this situation a relatively large (magnitude (M) ~6) EQ happened on April 12 (UT), 2013 at a place close to the former 1995 Kobe EQ (M~7), so we have tried to find whether there existed any precursors to this EQ, especially abnormal animal behavior (milk yield of cows), observed at Kagawa, Shikoku, near the EQ epicenter.
more » ... the EQ epicenter. The milk yield of cows has been continuously monitored at Kagawa, and it is found that the milk yield exhibited an abnormal depletion about 10 days before the EQ. This behavior has been extensively compared with the former electromagnetic precursors (ULF radiation, ionos-* Corresponding author. M. Hayakawa et al. 166 pheric perturbation). This leads to the discussion on the sensory mechanism of unusual behavior of mild yield of cows, and it may be suggested that ULF radiation among different electromagnetic precursors is a mostly likely driver, at least, for this EQ.
doi:10.4236/ojer.2016.53013 fatcat:wxxlksznnfabxgflogmlhwpvye