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Reinforcement history is a particularly potent predictor of future addictive behaviors. For the most part, researchers have studied the operant in order to understand and control positive reinforcement that maintains substance use behavior. However, negative reinforcement can be just as powerful in increasing the likelihood of substance use in the future, and some data suggest that negative (and not positive) reinforcement predicts increased difficulties associated with substance abuse over adoi:10.1037/h0099916 fatcat:no5eywou7bgwxgtc3siqlk6f3m