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Articulatory speech synthesis has long been based on one-dimensional (1D) approaches. They assume plane wave propagation within the vocal tract and disregard higher order modes that typically appear above 5 kHz. However, such modes may be relevant in obtaining a more natural voice, especially for phonation types with significant high frequency energy (HFE) content. This work studies the contribution of the glottal source at high frequencies in the 3D numerical synthesis of vowels. The spokendoi:10.3390/app9214535 fatcat:elnmb37fkfcirh42eqqgbvziyi