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Abstract. At high latitudes and altitudes one of the main controls on hydrological and biogeochemical processes is the breakup and freeze-up of lake and river ice. This study uses 3510 time series from across 678 Northern Hemisphere lakes and rivers to explore historical patterns in lake and river ice phenology across five overlapping time periods (1931–1960, 1946–1975, 1961–1990, 1976–2005, and 1931–2005). These time series show that the number of annual open-water days increased by 0.63 d perdoi:10.5194/tc-15-2211-2021 fatcat:lonkjwth75fz7aewmerya35la4