Application of a local attractor dimension to reduced space strongly coupled data assimilation for chaotic multiscale systems
Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics
Abstract. The basis and challenge of strongly coupled data assimilation (CDA) is the accurate representation of cross-domain covariances between various coupled subsystems with disparate spatio-temporal scales, where often one or more subsystems are unobserved. In this study, we explore strong CDA using ensemble Kalman filtering methods applied to a conceptual multiscale chaotic model consisting of three coupled Lorenz attractors. We introduce the use of the local attractor dimension (i.e. the
... imension (i.e. the Kaplan–Yorke dimension, dimKY) to prescribe the rank of the background covariance matrix which we construct using a variable number of weighted covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs). Specifically, we consider the ability to track the nonlinear trajectory of each of the subsystems with different variants of sparse observations, relying only on the cross-domain covariance to determine an accurate analysis for tracking the trajectory of the unobserved subdomain. We find that spanning the global unstable and neutral subspaces is not sufficient at times where the nonlinear dynamics and intermittent linear error growth along a stable direction combine. At such times a subset of the local stable subspace is also needed to be represented in the ensemble. In this regard the local dimKY provides an accurate estimate of the required rank. Additionally, we show that spanning the full space does not improve performance significantly relative to spanning only the subspace determined by the local dimension. Where weak coupling between subsystems leads to covariance collapse in one or more of the unobserved subsystems, we apply a novel modified Kalman gain where the background covariances are scaled by their Frobenius norm. This modified gain increases the magnitude of the innovations and the effective dimension of the unobserved domains relative to the strength of the coupling and timescale separation. We conclude with a discussion on the implications for higher-dimensional systems.